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Docker简明教程(12) 基于vagrant和virtualbox虚拟机搭建docker环境

基于vagrant和virtualbox虚拟机搭建docker环境

环境部分

vagrant下载和安装

  • 01 访问Vagrant官网:https://www.vagrantup.com/
  • 02 点击Download:Windows,MacOS,Linux等
  • 03 选择对应的版本
  • 04 傻瓜式安装
  • 05 命令行输入vagrant,测试是否安装成功

virtual box下载安装

  • 01 访问VirtualBox官网:https://www.virtualbox.org/
  • 02 选择左侧的“Downloads”
  • 03 选择对应的操作系统版本
  • 04 傻瓜式安装
  • 05 [win10中若出现]安装virtualbox快完成时立即回滚,并提示安装出现严重错误
    (1)打开服务
    (2)找到Device Install Service和Device Setup Manager,然后启动
    (3)再次尝试安装

CentOS安装

  • 01 创建centos7文件夹,并进入其中[目录全路径不要有中文字符]
  • 02 在此目录下打开cmd,运行vagrant init centos/7
    此时会在当前目录下生成Vagrantfile,同时指定使用的镜像为centos/7,关键是这个镜像在哪里,我已经提前准备好了,名称是virtualbox.box文件。大家可以前往百度网盘https://pan.baidu.com/s/1cIlUnjleWSDxVLx9cjsgxA 进行下载

  • 03 将virtualbox.box文件添加到vagrant管理的镜像中
    (1)下载网盘中的virtualbox.box文件
    (2)保存到磁盘的某个目录,比如D:\vm\virtualbox.box
    (3)添加镜像并起名叫centos/7(唯一):vagrant box add centos/7 D:\vm\virtualbox.box
    (4)vagrant box list 查看本地的box[这时候可以看到centos/7]

  • 04 centos/7镜像有了,根据Vagrantfile文件启动创建虚拟机
    来到centos7文件夹,在此目录打开cmd窗口,执行vagrant up[打开virtual box观察,可以发现centos7创建成功]

  • 05 以后大家操作虚拟机,还是要在centos文件夹打开cmd窗口操作
    vagrant halt 优雅关闭
    vagrant up 正常启动

  • 06 vagrant常用命令
    (1)vagrant ssh
    进入刚才创建的centos7中
    (2)vagrant status
    查看centos7的状态
    (3)vagrant halt
    停止/关闭centos7
    (4)vagrant destroy
    删除centos7
    (5)vagrant status
    查看当前vagrant创建的虚拟机
    (6)Vagrantfile中也可以写脚本命令,使得centos7更加丰富
    但是要注意,修改了Vagrantfile,要想使正常运行的centos7生效,必须使用vagrant reload

至此,使用vagrant+virtualbox搭建centos7完成,后面可以修改Vagrantfile对虚拟机进行相应配置

Vagrantfile 配置示例

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :

# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure
# configures the configuration version (we support older styles for
# backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what
# you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  # The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
  # For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
  # https://docs.vagrantup.com.

  # Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
  # boxes at https://vagrantcloud.com/search.
  config.vm.box = "centos/7"

  # Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
  # boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
  # `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
  # config.vm.box_check_update = false

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
  # accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
  # NOTE: This will enable public access to the opened port
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine and only allow access
  # via 127.0.0.1 to disable public access
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"

  # Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
  # using a specific IP.
  # config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  # Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
  # Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
  # your network.
  config.vm.network "public_network"

  # Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
  # the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
  # the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
  # argument is a set of non-required options.
  # config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"

  # Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
  # backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
  # Example for VirtualBox:
  #
  # config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
  # # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
  # vb.gui = true
  #
  # # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
  # vb.memory = "1024"
  # end
     config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
        vb.memory = "4000"
        vb.name= "first-centos7"
        vb.cpus= 2
    end
  #
  # View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
  # information on available options.

  # Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
  # Puppet, Chef, Ansible, Salt, and Docker are also available. Please see the
  # documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
  # config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
  # apt-get update
  # apt-get install -y apache2
  # SHELL
end

虚拟机访问配置

  • 01 使用centos7的默认账号连接
    在centos文件夹下执行vagrant ssh-config
    关注:Hostname Port IdentityFile
    IP:127.0.0.1
    port:2222
    用户名:vagrant
    密码:vagrant
    文件:Identityfile指向的文件private-key

  • 02 使用root账户登录(推荐)
    vagrant ssh 进入到虚拟机中
    sudo -i
    vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    修改PasswordAuthentication yes
    passwd修改密码,比如abc123
    systemctl restart sshd
    使用账号root,密码abc123进行登录

至此,可以使用你熟悉的ssh工具来进行访问,推荐几款常用的工具:xshell,Terminus,securtCRT

box的打包分发()

  • 01 退出虚拟机:vagrant halt

  • 02 打包:vagrant package --output first-docker-centos7.box

  • 03 得到first-docker-centos7.box

  • 04 将first-docker-centos7.box添加到其他的vagrant环境中
    vagrant box add first-docker-centos7 first-docker-centos7.box

  • 05 得到Vagrantfile:vagrant init first-docker-centos7

  • 06 根据Vagrantfile启动虚拟机
    vagrant up [此时可以得到和之前一模一样的环境,但是网络要重新配置]

docker部分

docker基本安装

  • 01 用你喜欢的方式,连接进入centos7
  • 02 卸载之前的docker
sudo yum remove docker \
                  docker-client \
                  docker-client-latest \
                  docker-common \
                  docker-latest \
                  docker-latest-logrotate \
                  docker-logrotate \
                  docker-engine
  • 03 安装必要的依赖
sudo yum install -y yum-utils \
    device-mapper-persistent-data \
    lvm2
  • 04 设置docker仓库
 sudo yum-config-manager \
      --add-repo \
      https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

建议添加一个加速器:访问这个地址,使用自己的阿里云账号登录,查看菜单栏左下角,发现有一个镜像加速器:https://cr.console.aliyun.com/cn-hangzhou/instances/mirrors

例如我的如下:

sudo tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF' { "registry-mirrors": ["https://yzcs6yua.mirror.aliyuncs.com"] } EOF

  • 05 安装docker
 sudo yum install -y docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io
  • 06 启动docker : sudo systemctl start docker
  • 07 设置开机启动: sudo systemctl enable docker
  • 08 测试docker安装是否成功 sudo docker run hello-world

能看到打印出hello from Docker!就表示成功了

具体详情可以参考官网介绍:https://docs.docker.com/install/linux/docker-ce/centos/

未经允许不得转载:菡萏如佳人 » Docker简明教程(12)
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